Marine Systems and Simulation

L3 MAPPS is a world leader in the supply of automation and control systems as well as turnkey training solutions for the naval market. L3 MAPPS pioneered the development and evolution of modern Integrated Platform Management Systems (IPMS), which are comprehensive warship automation systems. It also has the most technically advanced Integrated Bridge System on the market.

Platform Management System

Integrated monitoring, control and automation of all systems

Today's warships have comprehensive platform automation capabilities that allow them to achieve unprecedented levels of ship survivability and operational effectiveness. Integrating these capabilities at the platform level can optimize operational effectiveness and contribute to crewing reductions. The L3 MAPPS Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS) provides integrated monitoring and control of ship propulsion, electrical functions, auxiliaries and damage control machinery and systems.

Typical IPMS Configuration
Typical IPMS Configuration

In addition to the automation of these platform systems, the following features can be integrated in the IPMS:

  • On-Board Training System (OBTS)
  • Battle Damage Control System (BDCS)
  • Digital Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) System
  • Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) systems

System Architecture

The IPMS is a distributed architecture real-time digital control system. This open architecture system comprises multifunction control consoles and Remote Terminal Units (RTU). RTUs are used for process level data acquisition and control. The consoles provide the Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) for the operators at various shipboard locations. System-wide connectivity is provided by a redundant databus. The L3 MAPPS reliable multicast approach ensures integrity of data communication on the bus, while minimizing the bus traffic and providing very low data latency. Databus cables are strategically routed through the ship with adequate geographic separation to provide maximum system survivability. Open system architecture allows for the use of a variety of data networks in accordance with customer requirements. It also permits the interface of the IPMS to other systems through fieldbus, serial links, and other interfaces.

Human Machine Interfaces

The IPMS includes advanced HMI design that is consistent with its application in a sophisticated warship. The primary HMI is in the form of multifunction control consoles, typically located in the machinery control room and on the bridge. Wall-mountable consoles are typically provided in damage-control section bases and for local control in the engine rooms and other machinery spaces. Portable operating units support emergency control operations and troubleshooting using built-in test equipment and software.

Control and monitoring from consoles are performed through the use of integrated control panels and high-resolution color monitors that display ergonomically designed graphical pages of the platform machinery and systems. Each console is multifunctional and can perform all functions of the IPMS, provided the appropriate password authorization is used and the control transfer protocols are respected.

This provides a very high level of survivability, because total platform control can be exercised from several widely separated locations on the ship.

L3 MAPPS pioneered the use of color graphics-based machinery control for warships and has accumulated a significant amount of experience and expertise in the implementation of ergonomically designed color graphics pages. L3 MAPPS prefers simple and well-researched symbology over the distracting effects of an extravagant use of color and artistically rendered symbols. The screens are designed to provide the necessary information to the operator with special emphasis on emergency conditions.

The L3 MAPPS Tiled, Layered Graphics (TLG) approach facilitates the automatic decluttering of information at the various levels of zoom, ensuring easily readable displays at all times. TLG also provides a novel form of navigation through the ability to pan and zoom in a "world view” of the ship. Alternatively, a structured windows approach is used with four windows that can be displayed simultaneously on the screen, allowing the operator to manage several different systems at once.

While the color screens make it possible to monitor and control every aspect of the platform, the IPMS can also include a limited amount of dedicated instrumentation for emergency control and monitoring from the control rooms. An engine order telegraph system can also be included to communicate propulsion orders to the control rooms from the bridge. This is backed up by an emergency telegraph system with repeaters located in the machinery spaces. Several different types of pages are used to display plant overviews, machinery data, system schematics, trending displays, alarms, events, and fault messages. The IPMS features elaborate alarm processing techniques that reduce operator loading by filtering out nuisance alarms and providing context-sensitive displays based on the nature and severity of the alarm. This feature is vitally important in systems that have a large number of sensors because it helps to maintain operator effectiveness under both normal and emergency conditions.

Audible and visual annunciation is used to alert the operator to the occurrence of alarms, warnings and faults. Acknowledgment of such annunciation is typically based on the function allocated to each position; that is, the propulsion operator (irrespective of his physical location in the ship) acknowledges propulsion alarms, warnings and faults.

Data Acquisition and Control

L3 MAPPS provides systems that can interface to as few as 100 signals and to a virtually infinite number of sensors and actuators. To manage this vast differential of signals, the L3 MAPPS IPMS provides a flexible and effective approach to data acquisition and control using variable density RTUs that are able to interface to a wide variety of sensors and actuators.

Such interfaces can be wired directly to the plant devices or can be provided through serial links and fieldbuses.

The RTUs are based on open architecture backplane electronic modules that integrate both signal conditioning and processing functions and provide optical isolation for field signals. The RTUs acquire plant sensor data, perform plausibility tests, check for limit violation, transmit the data to other IPMS subsystems as required, process automatic control sequences, output control signals to actuators, and perform online and offline built-in tests.

The automatic propulsion control and power management software reside in the RTUs together with control software for other platform machinery and systems. These units are ruggedized for installation in warship machinery spaces and can withstand the most stringent environmental conditions.

Gas Turbine Engine Controllers

Gas Turbine Engine Controllers
Gas Turbine Engine Controllers

Using the same RTU hardware and software, L3 MAPPS can also provide gas turbine engine controllers for a variety of gas turbines used on modern warships. Maintaining commonality with the rest of the IPMS architecture has significantly reduced life cycle costs for many navies by supporting the Engine Control Module (ECM) with the same training, spare parts, and upgrades available for the entire control system. The HMI associated with the gas turbine local controller can also be used for shipwide control with all the capabilities of a console.

Data Logging, Trending, and Reporting

The IPMS continuously records the changes in sensor data and the control commands together with the date and time stamps for each value. Short-term data storage, comprising the last 24 hours, is available at each console, whereas long-term data storage can be provided by removable hard drives located inside specific consoles.

The data from these hard drives can be viewed on board and can also be analyzed in shore-based facilities.

Sensor information and other system data can be selected by the operator to be stored and displayed graphically together with the relevant alarm and warning limit thresholds. Either black-and-white laser printers and/or color printers can be provided to obtain hardcopy logs of events, alarms and the color graphic screens for archival purposes.

On-Board Training System

Starting in the early 1980s, L3 MAPPS used its extensive expertise in both simulation and controls technologies to pioneer IPMS on-board training functionality on warships. The IPMS can include an advanced OBTS capability whereby the operator consoles can also operate in training mode. All of the operator consoles (except one console to remain as station-in-control) can be placed in training mode to facilitate full-mission team training on board the ship. One of the consoles would be designated as the instruction facility while the other consoles are operated in training mode. If a console or group of consoles in control mode fails, the other consoles operating in training mode automatically revert to control mode.

The OBTS uses real-time high-fidelity simulation models of the ship's hull, platform machinery and systems and includes an emulation of RTU automation functionality. Previously defined training scenarios can be performed or a new scenario created by the instructor on board the ship. Except for the use of training data generated by real-time high-fidelity simulation techniques, the operator consoles behave exactly as they do during normal control mode operation using the same software. This ensures a very high level of training realism.

Battle Damage Control System

BDCS Screenshot
BDCS Screenshot

Management of vessel safety systems is achieved by the BDCS function which provides early damage recognition and effective coordination of damage control actions. BDCS functionality can include any or all of the following features:

Damage plotting: A replacement of the traditional damage control reporting system that uses sound powered phones and laminated damage control diagram plates. These plates are replaced by full ship, color diagrams with the ability to annotate standard damage control symbology. As damage information is acquired by the IPMS or entered at any console, all consoles are automatically updated. This provides the Commanding Officer, Engineering Officer, and the Damage Control Assistant with a real-time, complete, up-to-date picture of the damage situation giving them the information edge they need to effectively command the ship.

Kill cards: Used to help the operator react quickly and correctly in the event of emergencies. Predefined automatic control sequences to respond to specific casualty conditions can be activated by the kill cards in addition to providing checklists for crew assignment and other damage management tasks.

Ship stability calculator: Provides online expert system advice to ship personnel. This system can either accept sensor values or manual input to determine stability in both intact and damaged vessel conditions. This function calculates weight and momentum, lifting arms, hydrostatic values, and vessel motion during swells. Recommendations for improving ship stability are also provided by the system.

Digital CCTV System

To enhance the manpower reduction features of the IPMS, L3 MAPPS has integrated a digital closed-circuit television system to provide video monitoring of the ship's machinery spaces and other locations. color CCD cameras can be connected to the IPMS consoles using the existing network to allow the console screens to display the video image in a screen window which can be maximized to use the full screen area. To provide the most flexibility, any camera can be selected for display on any console; however, fire alarms and flooding alarms will trigger the automatic display of the relevant camera images at specific consoles.

Condition-Based Maintenance System

Vibration monitoring systems and other specialized equipment and sensors can be integrated with the IPMS to provide periodic monitoring of equipment health. To facilitate the predictive monitoring of the machinery plant, expert system software is provided to advise maintenance personnel concerning the need for machine maintenance. Maintenance based on equipment health as opposed to periodic scheduling of maintenance has provided significant reductions in life cycle costs for ship owners.

The CBM system automatically monitors online accelerometers, tachometers, and displacement probes, and other sensors for critical machinery such as propulsion engines, shaft bearings, and generators. For less critical machinery, an offline portable vibration recorder with accelerometer can be used to transfer vibration data to the system.

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bridge system

Integrated Bridge System (IBS) - Navigating the Future Today

Exceptional operational performance is an ever-increasing requirement of today’s ship owners. Some of the most significant elements of operational performance include risk reduction and navigational safety. Many ship systems in use today tend to overwhelm ship’s officers with on-screen information, while only a fraction of the information presented is useful at any given time. This approach tends to degrade operational performance and prolong the learning process unnecessarily. The L3 MAPPS Integrated Bridge System (IBS) is designed to assist the navigator in selecting information that is deemed relevant to the operational situation by collecting, processing and presenting navigational and/or other relevant data, without cluttering the displays with other information that may not be needed at that moment.

One of the world’s largest operators of high-speed container ships expresses:

“The L3 MAPPS IBS lets the crew focus on the task at hand. They get exactly the information they need in a clear, uncluttered format – reducing the risk of accidents. It is easy to learn because of its intuitive, uniform design.
The L3 MAPPS IBS meets our operational requirements. Higher productivity makes it possible to use smaller crews. The easy-to-use system streamlines maintenance and reduces cost.

The L3 MAPPS approach to navigation and integrated bridges is different from all others, and is based on a solid background of system integration expertise, sea-going experience and innovative engineering. While most suppliers’ bridge integration philosophy consists of physically integrating numerous different hardware and software systems into one console, the L3 MAPPS Integrated Bridge takes a completely different approach, focusing on functional integration. This approach allows any navigation function to be performed from any workstation. The networked approach that brings the functionality together also allows for easy integration with other ship systems. The L3 MAPPS IBS is based on the belief that improved human-machine interaction results in increased safety. This is accomplished by:

  • Seamless integration of all navigation functions
  • Uniform presentation of information
  • Uniform principles of operation
  • User simplicity to avoid human errors
  • Multifunction workstations (MFW)
  • Multiple layers of redundancy and graceful degradation
  • COTS hardware for ease of maintenance
  • Open system design (inter-system links to other systems)

Seamless Integration

All navigation sensors including radar are integrated into the navigation network, allowing operation, monitoring and alarm identification on any workstation. This facilitates distribution of navigation data and exchange of tactical information from a Combat Management System or the Integrated Platform Management System. Tactical information can be presented on any bridge workstation as overlay data on ARPA radar and ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) or, if desired, displayed in a separate window on the workstation.

Uniform Presentation of Information

Human-Machine Interface (HMI) for the various applications, such as ECDIS, ARPA radar and Conning Display, have similar design layouts for easy recognition and user-friendliness.

Uniform Principles of Operation

The applications employ similar layout of the control areas with soft keys. The control keys are operated with a user-friendly control panel and roller-ball cursor control on the armrest of the navigator chairs. Some frequently used functions may be controlled by keys on the armrest panels that provide direct access to these functions.

User Simplicity

L3 MAPPS’ IBS is designed to be intuitive in operation, and takes into account that most navigators today have good working knowledge of modern computer systems. L3 MAPPS believes that uniform presentation and operation contribute to safety because they help to reduce the risk of operator errors, especially in emergency situations.

Multi Function Workstations (MFW)

All workstations are completely multifunctional, and may be used for any IBS function at any time. All MFWs provide access to all information, enabling the duty officer(s) to configure the bridge console layout in accordance with the mission being performed, bridge manning or system status (i.e., damage or malfunction) or to suit the personal preference of the navigation officer.

Multi Level Redundant System

  • Sensors are connected to two or more Sensor Concentrator (SC) units. In case of duplicate or triplicate sensors, the different sensors are connected to different SCs to provide even greater redundancy.
  • Two parallel SCs feed each half of the number of MFWs.
  • Fiber optic cabling connects the SCs and allows transfer of data to the other system if one SC should malfunction.
  • Because each of the MFWs can display any application, a malfunction of one MFW will not be fatal.
  • Two operator’s chairs can control any of the MFWs.
  • Additional back-up control capability by dedicated control panels (option) at each MFW or by standard computer keyboard.
  • Provision of Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) contributes to fail-safe operation.

Ergonomics

L3 MAPPS has many years of experience with advanced bridge layouts, and the latest innovations in user ergonomics are taken into account. Three-dimensional layout studies are offered to ensure the best possible working environment and compliance with IMO and class rules. Control of all main systems is readily available from the navigator chairs, including optional steering tillers. Visibility analysis will ensure minimal interference of blind angles and ensure optimal visual capability.

Operation of Radars

Navigation radars are operated and controlled from the navigator’s chairs and radar video is displayed as one of the applications on the MFWs. This integration makes ordinary dedicated radar displays obsolete. Radar information is also presented as overlay on the ECDIS. The IBS can be extended to accommodate up to four navigation radars with full ARPA performance. Presentation of surveillance radar video on MFWs can also be accommodated.

Naval Navigation Functions

L3 MAPPS IBS deliveries to the Royal Norwegian Navy and the Royal Swedish Navy include development of special naval navigation functionalities such as:

  • WECDIS (Warship ECDIS)
  • Semi-automatic Positioning with input from the ship’s Optical Bearing Device and Laser Range and Bearing Binoculars
  • Electro-optical multisensor operation/presentation
  • Tactical information: Tactical routes, tactical areas, tactical target transfer/correlation, mine/torpedo warnings, etc.
  • Intercept point calculation and presentation

Remote Diagnostics

Available as an option is a vessel support system that enables software diagnostics and other support services via Inmarsat HSD satellite communication.

‘‘Remote diagnostics and troubleshooting via satellite means that problems can be solved much faster than before.”

Integration

The L3 MAPPS IBS is very flexible concerning the interfacing of navigation sensors, combat management systems, Integrated Platform Management System and communication systems. Because of our system integration expertise and open system approach, the L3 MAPPS IBS can accept sensor inputs from a wide variety of suppliers supporting most common signal transmission methods and protocols, while being able to adapt to special needs.

Other Features

Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) operation and presentation, Advance Position Prediction and Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) are available for integration with the L3 MAPPS IBS. Integration of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) with ECDIS/ARPA is also offered as required by IMO regulations.

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MARINE CONSOLES

Compact, open architecture, human-machine interface workstations

The L3 MAPPS Standard Marine Console has been designed to meet today’s needs for a compact, open architecture, human-machine interface workstation. The heart of the console is a PC or VME format computer situated in the console base. Using industry standard formats allows for easy adoption of new computer technologies during the ships life-cycle.

The console is of modular design allowing multi-console configurations to be readily assembled. A range of connection segments are available that allow unique configurations to be developed to suit customer needs. These segments may also be used to house traditional instrumentation or communications equipment. Our systems engineering staff works with the customer to achieve the optimum design integration for the application.

The console’s light weight and compact size make it ideal for upgrade and backfit applications where traditional operator consoles are being replaced. The single screen console is completely deck-mounted while the dual screen configuration requires the fitting of a top brace. The console can be completely installed and maintained from the front allowing the unit to be installed close to bulkheads, freeing up space in congested compartments.

Standard Marine Console
L3 MAPPS Marine Systems Console

Features

  • Compact ergonomic design
  • Light weight
  • Front access
  • PC or VME processor options
  • US Navy MIL SPEC compliant using COTS equipment
  • Dual monitor configuration available

Advanced Modular Construction

  • Lightweight
    Aluminum and composite materials
  • Compact size
    Easily fits into small/congested compartments
  • Adaptable
    Provisions for hosting traditional controls and instrumentation
  • Modular design
    Permits multiple-bay console workstation to be assembled
  • Shock Qualified

Specifications

  • Color display
    High resolution (1600x1200/UXGA), 20.1” LCD
  • Input devices
    Standard keyboard and 2”/50mm trackball
  • Processor
    PC or 6U VME format
  • Sound
    2W speaker
  • Network
    Two or more 10/100/1000Mbps copper or fiber optic ethernet ports.

Options Available

  • Touch screen
  • Hardwired emergency stop push-buttons
  • External shock mounts
  • Color to customer specifications
  • LCD upgrade to 23" (1920 x 1080 / full HD)

Electrical Characteristics:

  • Power consumption: 300W typ.
  • Voltage: per NATO STANAG 1008 limits
    • 24 VDC nominal; or
    • 115/230 VAC, 50/60 Hz.
Console Dimensions

Dimensions and Weight:

  • Height: 1.4m (55”)
  • Width: 0.7m (28”)
  • Depth: 1.0m (39”)
  • Weight: 170kg (375 lb)

Environmental Characteristics:

  • Operating temperature: 0°C to +50°C
  • Non-operating temperature: -20°C to +70°C
  • Humidity: up to 95% R.H. condensing
  • Vibration: MIL-STD-167-1, 4-25 Hz
  • Shock with isolators: MIL-S-901D Grade A, Class II
  • Shock without isolators: 15g
  • Enclosure degree of protection: IP 23
  • EMI: MIL-STD-461E for surface ships

Reliability:

  • MTTR < 30 minutes (front access)
  • MTBF > 6,600 hours

Qualification:

  • MIL-STD-167-1 (Vibration)
  • MIL-S-901D (Shock)
  • MIL-STD-461E (EMI)
  • MIL-STD-810F (Temperature and Humidity)

Type Approvals for Germanischer Lloyd, American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd Register, and Det Norske Veritas pending.

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Battle Damage Control System (BDCS)

Manage the full range of emergency situations

Designed to provide full support to officers and decision-makers in carrying out their duties, the L3 MAPPS Battle Damage Control System (BDCS) helps the damage control team manage the full range of emergency situations, from fire, flood and smoke to radiation and chemical hazard detection. Fully integrated within the L3 MAPPS Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS), BDCS information is distributed across all IPMS workstations on the network.

Designed to provide full support to officers and decision-makers in carrying out their duties, the L3 MAPPS Battle Damage Control System (BDCS) helps the damage control team manage the full range of emergency situations, from fire, flood and smoke to radiation and chemical hazard detection. Fully integrated within the L3 MAPPS Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS), BDCS information is distributed across all IPMS workstations on the network. The main features of BDCS are as follows:

  • Incident management and plotting
  • 2-D or isometric representation of the ship’s General Arrangement Plan (GAP) on which all plots are performed
  • Infinite numbers of layers to display ship systems information as overlay on the GAP
  • Works in unison with all damage-control-related Automatic Sequence Controllers (ASC) running in the IPMS to automate incident management tasks
  • Automated kill cards to provide support in managing incident or state transition
  • Embedded CCTV support to quickly see incidents or damage
  • Direct interaction with ship stability calculation and related advice
  • Radiation monitoring and logging
  • Management of personnel and material resources
  • Casualty management and prioritization
  • Logging and report generation for all damage control events
  • Integration with the L3 MAPPS On Board Training System (OBTS) to provide the best training environment for students/instructors to learn, practice and validate damage control procedures and scenarios
  • Expandable to a full expert system by including the latest suite of L3 MAPPS NBCD advisories

Supported with CCTV

The CCTV support can be accessed directly from the GAP by selecting the compartment and then requesting the CCTV image in that compartment. BDCS can be configured to automatically pop up the CCTV image as soon as an active fire sensor is detected in a compartment equipped with CCTV.

Incident Management and Plotting

Incident management is the primary function of the BDCS and can be performed from the same display that is used to perform ship monitoring and control. As a result, switching between machinery control and damage control is transparent to the operator. Incidents and resource deployment are plotted directly on the GAP and are automatically redistributed to all IPMS workstations for fast and accurate update of the situation. This ensures that all parties are making decisions based on the same information. Active sensors and incident progression are easily identified with standard symbols displayed on the GAP. Operators can intuitively select these graphics to get more information or to amend a specific situation.

Close Cooperation with ASCs

The BDCS interacts directly with some ASCs that reside in the control system nodes (VRTU). Plotting an incident or marking the progression of an incident can stop the ventilation, perform electrical/mechanical isolation of the compartment, start smoke removal, etc.

Automated Kill Cards

Automated kill cards help the operator to manage a particular incident or to achieve a particular state of ship readiness. Kill cards are dynamic and interactive checklists that provide full management of an incident by requesting action to be taken at a remote site and also by monitoring the status of various sensors and devices. Request for action, timeout on actions that are not performed, automatic link to mimic pages where action can be performed and link to online help are just some of the features supported by the L3 MAPPS BDCS kill card function.

Ship Stability Calculation

Built within the BDCS is a full stability package that allows the operator to see the impact of damage and ship condition on the stability of the vessel. The stability package will calculate weight and momentum, lifting arms, hydrostatic values, vessel motion during swells and waves, safe sailing determination and advice. The stability operator can also enter a “simulation” mode (i.e., a what-if scenario) in which simulated data can be input to the system so that the effects of these countermeasures can be analyzed prior to performing them on the actual ship.

Damage Control Advisories / Expert Systems

The BDCS can be even more comprehensive when used in association with the latest suite of damage control advisories. It will use rule-based algorithms to determine the optimal sets of cooling and smoke boundaries, provide smoke removal path and automated smoke removal operation, combustible hazard relocation, optimal escape and attack routes based on current ship closure state. It can minimize damage by predicting the blast route of unexploded ordnance and can be tailored to the customer’s specific needs.

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Interactive Incident Board Management Station (I2BMS)

Newest developments in damage control solutions

Naval vessels are meant to go into harm’s way and, as such, always run the risk that they will sustain damage in carrying out their tasks. A vessel that can sustain damage or deal with an emergency with minimal effect to crew or infrastructure stands a greater chance of accomplishing its mission.

L3 MAPPS has long been at the forefront of developments for damage control and damage management on board ship, and has never ceased to improve the product and develop new ways to enable the ship’s crew to effectively manage emergencies on board.

Our current state-of-the-art battle damage control system (BDCS) allows operators to plot damage on the ship’s general arrangement plan (GAP). It offers unrivalled ease of navigation, using familiar Windows® style navigation methods of pan, tilt, zoom and selection with “rubber band.” The real power of the BDCS is its unique ability to use layering to declutter pages. There is only one GAP page in isometric view and one in 2-D view, and all of the information necessary to obtain the status of the ship is available on that one page. The key to easy navigation is that the information is presented in layers. As the operator drills down or zooms into the page, more and more information becomes available (see figures 1 – 3). As always, the complete integration of the BDCS with the integrated platform management system reduces operator workload and improves damage control efficiency by the direct interaction of the systems. On flood detection, automatic sequences can quickly and easily isolate compartments. In an NBC event, positive citadel pressure can quickly and easily be achieved with automatic sequences. Similarly, a fire can be readily identified and prevented from spreading by automatically isolating the ventilation system and closing automatic fire doors.

IIBMS Figure 2
Figure 1
IIBMS Figure 2
Figure 2
IIBMS Figure 3
Figure 3

While the level of functionality of our BDCS is unrivalled, and the ease of navigation completely unique, our research and development team is always seeking ways to further improve the system and help the ship’s crew be the most effective.

One area that has been very popular on most advanced programs is the Large Screen Display. A plasma or LCD screen, 50” to 60”, can be used to display any IPMS mimic page, but normally displays the ship general arrangement plan, as shown in figure 1. It is big enough to be seen from all around the compartment, and provides a high level overview of the ship damage state. While this arrangement is excellent for overview, it can be better optimized for damage management. For this reason, our research and development team looked for a means to enable the large screen display to be used for damage control as well.

The result is a digital electronic incident board we have called the Interactive Incident Board Management Station or I2BMS (see figure 4). This new development can be regarded as a new damage control console. The console has, as its principles of operation, touch screen input on all three screens, using a pointing device, finger or even gloves if the operator is wearing anti-flash gear. In our studies, we determined that it was important to the task of damage control never to lose sight of the general arrangement plan of the ship. Therefore, the large screen always displays the ship’s general arrangement plan. The two smaller screens are used for displaying kill cards or IPMS mimic pages. For example, if a fire is reported in a compartment, the operator would select the fire symbol, and open the related kill card page. The kill card would not open on the main screen, but rather on one of the smaller side screens. If the kill card refers to an IPMS mimic page, that page is opened on the third screen. In this way, the operator can perform all actions required to manage an emergency without ever losing sight of the ship’s general arrangement plan. Although text input is rarely required for damage control purposes, a stowaway keyboard is available for text input, and handwriting recognition allows text to be input directly on the screen ( see figure 5).

In addition, whereas plotting symbols consistent with the navy’s traditional symbology are normally used to plot damage from a plotting palette in the top left corner of the BDCS page, free draw plotting is also now available. In this way, the BDCS can act as a digital representation of the traditional Incident Board (or State Board).

One of the layering features available on all BDCS applications is the ability to turn system layers on or off. This is particularly helpful when displaying complex ship systems like the fire main system or the chilled water system ( see figure 6). The BDCS now also offers plotting against a specific layer. If damage is sustained to the chilled water system, and a patch pipe is required to maintain system viability, the repair and information can be plotted directly on that specific layer, and will not clutter other operators’ view by displaying it on all layers.

IIBMS Figure 4
Figure 4
IIBMS Figure 5
Figure 5
IIBMS Figure 6
Figure 6

Finally, an “Advice” mode has been added which allows operators to plot without broadcasting what they draw to all users. This is particularly useful for briefing and debriefing damage control exercises.

The I2BMS is yet another example of our unyielding commitment to continuous development and improvement.

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Marine Training

A complete range of cost-effective solutions for your instructional needs

L3 MAPPS knows that a well-trained crew is a key factor in the safe and effective operation of a ship. Moreover, it contributes to a sense of professionalism which enhances both individual satisfaction and retention.

Operational tempo and budgetary constraints make it difficult to send personnel away for training courses, refreshers or re-qualification. Incorporating training sessions on board a fully operational vessel, without disrupting its mission and manning, can be an excellent compromise to the training dilemma. The L3 MAPPS comprehensive On-Board Training System (OBTS) makes this a reality.

The L3 MAPPS OBTS enables training of crew members aboard their vessels, using the same Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS) control consoles and interface that they use in the day-to-day operation of their ships. As detailed below, training sessions can be conducted without additional training components aboard the vessel. Personnel can train during quiet periods and still maintain a state of readiness with respect to their primary duties. This innovative approach ensures a high standard of training and qualification, and a significant reduction in operational costs because personnel remain active members of the crew even while training.

OBTS Concept

The OBTS provides operational training similar to that of a full-scope simulator. By using the same IPMS Human Machine Interface (HMI), control sequences and other control and monitoring software functions as are used on the operational IPMS, the L3 MAPPS concept is to train an individual or a team at his usual IPMS station using a real-time simulated environment without affecting the simultaneous IPMS control and monitoring functions of the real plant. OBTS provides a realistic training environment. Whereas in traditional training an instructor would have to abort a scenario that might endanger machinery and personnel, using an OBTS simulation allows the instructor to push the training envelope further. OBTS allows for the full range of remedial action / emergency response, and the more realistic stress that normally comes with them. Performing the training scenario in full allows the trainee to be confronted with pages and interfaces he would rarely use during regular operations. It allows the trainee to go beyond the catastrophic failure point to bring about practical, real-time and realistic feedback to his actions, as opposed to the theoretical responses associated with the conventional approach.

Process

The simulation software is installed on one or several IPMS stations in the vessel and can be activated while the IPMS remains in full control of the ship. Upon selecting the OBTS function at an IPMS station, the console ceases communication with the IPMS databus, thereby isolating itself from control of the machinery. In OBTS mode, the console in training runs independent of the main IPMS network. This provides an additional safety layer to prevent inadvertent interaction with the real plant.

Prior to entering training mode, all IPMS control and monitoring functions assigned to the student must be transferred to another station. If problems or emergencies arise, the training session can be immediately stopped and the training console returned to its primary control mode.

A prompt return to control mode is possible due to the uninterrupted update of the IPMS control database performed in the background of all the OBTS training actions. Although all actions from the trainee are isolated from the main IPMS control databus while in training mode, the console continues to receive every database refresh message from the real plant. This constant and real-time database update allows the console to return immediately to control mode without the need to reboot or to synchronize the database.

Individual and Team Training

Individual training is available at any IPMS console. Training can also be performed in a team environment where all trainees can interact with the same simulation scenario running in an instructor station. In such a scenario, actions from one trainee will affect other trainees since they are all interacting with the same simulated environment. Any IPMS console can be designated as the instructor console, as is the case for a training console.

Simulation Software

The simulation software necessary to support the OBTS functions is based on real-time plant dynamic simulation and is installed into each IPMS console with the OBTS feature. All relevant ship systems and main components, such as diesel engines, gas turbines and pumps, can be modeled using the well-proven L3 MAPPS Orchid® Modeling Environment (ME). Third-party models already developed can also be integrated or interfaced to the Orchid® ME model to optimize development time and budget. In addition to the simulation of the plant, the OBTS also requires interface with the IPMS control and monitoring sequences. These sequences typically reside in Remote Terminal Units (RTU) distributed throughout the ship. In OBTS mode, the sequences from each RTU are emulated/simulated and incorporated into the simulation software.

The combination of using the actual control sequences with high-fidelity dynamic simulation constitutes the backbone of the simulation environment. This makes it possible to run a simulation of the machinery and ship systems through the Orchid® ME model and to perform all IPMS functions using the control and monitoring sequence emulation/simulation. The student interface is performed with the same HMI used in real IPMS operations, rendering the whole OBTS environment as realistic as possible to the trainee.

Instructor Operating Station

The Instructor Operating Station (IOS) software is also installed into each IPMS console with OBTS feature, making it possible to use any station as the instructor console for team and individual training. The IOS includes the software necessary for an instructor to create a lesson plan, launch a training session, introduce faults, activate local control devices or modify the course of a scenario in real time.

Summary of IOS Features

Lesson plan controller: Without intervention from the instructor, the student would run a free-play session with the simulation model, which would ensure that the plant reacts to each of the student's actions. To create a situation other than that generated simply by the student’s incorrect action or response, the instructor can trigger a fault of simulated equipment. This fault could be triggered at will by the instructor or it could be part of a lesson plan. A lesson plan is a suite of events, such as faults, signal overrides and local control, that are inserted into the simulation model to generate the situation that the instructor wishes to confront the student with.

The lesson plan controller provides the instructor with the ability to implement and edit training lesson plans. An event could be made to occur after a pre-defined time following the start of the lesson, be triggered by an operator action or the status of a plant parameter, or even a combination of these.

The lesson plan controller provides the customer with the tool to create his own training scenarios. A customer who chooses a low-cost model over a more expensive high-fidelity model can use a lesson plan to supplement the model in areas not covered by the model. A training session can be performed using a pre-coded set of events that runs on its own from the beginning to the end. It could also be modified online and in real time by the instructor who can insert additional faults to modify a routine scenario that a trainee may have already seen. A session could also be started as a free-play activity in which the instructor could decide to interface by inserting malfunctions online. The combination of the training modes described here provides the ideal flexibility required to adapt the OBTS to each situation and schedule constraint.

Local controls: Allow the simulation and control of selected devices that are not controlled by the IPMS but that are necessary for training purposes. For example, this could allow the instructor to simulate activating a breaker or an important valve that is a manual device on the ship and that is not connected to the IPMS.

Instructor controls: Allow the instructor to initialize signals of devices that the student is not able to control from the IPMS. For example, re-initialize tank levels after a scenario.

Environmental parameters: Used to set parameters, such as ambient air temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, wave height, seawater temperature.

Malfunctions: Generate failure of devices. This may involve pumps, heat exchangers, valves, fans, pipe breaks, motor or engine failures, and so on.

Overrides: Override a digital or analog IPMS signal associated to a plant device.

Store/Restore: Store a state of the model to the disk so that it may be retrieved at any time. Restore initializes the state of the OBTS to a previously stored state.

Event logger: Provides a historical record of the student’s actions.

Lesson plans: Allow the instructor to create a series of events, and can be performed in automatic mode or with manual inputs and modifications.

Land-Based Trainer

To complement the OBTS, a land-based trainer can also be delivered to provide ashore the same type of training environment as described for the OBTS. This provides a training facility using the same tool and IPMS environment as offered on board the vessel.

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